drink tea with pinky out emoji will be the end of me. originally planned honey baked ham, this obviously named xerox buttocks with peach emoji
retweet just an ant pheromone trail. when the race is run, when all is said and done, i'll pardon your laugh: a shower's more luxurious than a bath
rewrote revelation with wonka factory vocal warm up cautionarration (unitalics spoken). piketty waited just seven score and seven years to fix marx
slide a letter reading "i've enclosed my portfolio.
see you monday?" into an envelope addressed to the new yorker cartoon
dept in my fucking dreams
read measuring poverty around the world by anthony b. atkinson. the demands of the poorest among us are not unreasonable
the lis cross-national data center (formerly luxembourg income study), now covering more than 60 per cent of the world population
the excellent french practice of attaching to each table or graph a reading note that guides the reader through the material
poverty is one of the two great challenges facing the world as a whole today
robert mcnamara, to write in the forward to the first world development report in 1978 that "some 800 million individuals continue to be trapped in what i have termed absolute poverty: a condition of life so characterized by malnutrition, illiteracy, disease, squalid surroundings, high infant mortality, and low life expectancy as to be beneath any reasonable definition of human decency
self-reported surveys tend to significantly underestimate the scale of the problem. for example, the annual behavioral risk factor surveillance system telephone survey in the usa produced a self-reported estimate of the prevalence of obesity of 20% of adults in the same year that the national health and nutrition examination survey, using measurements obtained by trained personnel conducting a comprehensive examination, provided an estimate of 28% of men and 34% of women with a bmi ≥ 30
although our knowledge of poverty around the world is incomplete, we know enough to act
if we look at the calorie requirements underlying national poverty lines in different countries, then we find that in sri lanka they are 2,030, in south africa 2,261, in pakistan 2,550, and in uganda 3,000
the world bank concludes that "the ranking of countries by the gini coefficient is somewhat robust to whether consumption or income is used"
the economist's big mac index webpage solves the mystery: "india's maharaja mac is made of chicken"
while there is only limited truth to the adage that "two can live as cheaply as one," many scales give a greater weight to the first adult in the household, including the widely used "modified oecd scale," which is 1.0 for the first adult, 0.5 for each additional person aged fourteen or over, and 0.3 for each child under fourteen. this is the scale used by eurostat in its calculations of monetary poverty for the eu. the us official poverty line gives an even greater weight to the first adult, assuming larger economies of scale
in the subset of countries where male bmi is also recorded in the data, "we have shown that the extent of intra-household inequality entails that the bulk of underweight women and undernourished children are found in households where the male head appears to be adequately nourished"
the components of household income or consumption may differ across countries, a notable case being the inclusion of the imputed rent of owner-occupiers
it is easy for me, sitting comfortably in oxford, to criticize the data that are collected. the hard work is done in statistical offices in the field, negotiating with many parties and training the staff who carry out the surveys or who collect administrative data and information on prices. it is the interviewers who have to translate the ideal survey design into actual returns, working in conditions that are often difficult and sometimes dangerous. the practical problems of carrying out a survey should not be underestimated. sterling chadee, director of the trinidad and tobago central statistical office, when describing carrying out fieldwork, identified dogs and crime as two of the many problems faced
there may be good grounds for supposing that urban slum dwellers are underrepresented..in which case this can be addressed by oversampling or by ex post stratification. however, where a whole category - such as the institutionalized elderly or pastoralists - are missing from the survey, then it is not simply a question of multiplying up the observed frequencies
the collapse of communism in central and eastern europe saw a reduction in the willingness of households to participate in official surveys
if household respondents are illiterate, innumerate or unmotivated and require assistance from enumerators to complete the diary, a seven-day diary for example, may become a seven-day recall survey with all of the errors associated with recall design
from 1981 to 2012, the poverty rate in rural china fell, in round numbers, from 95 per cent to not much more than 10 per cent
the kuznets curve refers to the possibility that, as a result of structural change, income inequality first rises and then falls as the economy modernizes. this generates an inverted-u-shaped curve for the degree of income inequality
the soviet statistical office, goskomstat
at 3°c or 4°c, most of the snows from the himalayas would be gone. that would cause severe disruption to the main rivers of asia..much of bangladesh would be submerged